Post 2: From “Revenge Porn” to “Cyber Exploitation”

Dr. Magaldi and I are continuing to carry out our research on the topic of revenge pornography. Since the last blog post, I have decided to specifically focus the research on whether it is possible to enforce revenge porn from a legal perspective due to anonymity and the challenges of tracking individuals online. This will be the core of our research. I am also particularly interesting in how the topics of revenge porn tie into other cyber crimes, such as cyber-stalking and doxxing, all falling under the umbrella of cyber harassment. I would also like to point out that I am considering re-titling our research from “revenge porn” to “cyber exploitation” and “non-consensual pornography” to better fit the definition of the issue. These terms place more of an emphasis on consent rather than intent that the term “revenge” has. I have been able to get a good overview of the topic up to this point after having read a number of blogs, articles, and websites that focus on non-consensual pornography. I have even found three bloggers who specifically focus on revenge pornography and crimes against women.

What I learned is that there will be road blocks when performing research, but the best way to fight against them is to read about the topic and educate yourself more on the issue. This is what I have done this past month and it has allowed me to better understand what I hope to accomplish and present. It is a great opportunity to collaborate with Dr. Magaldi on this research given that one of her main interests in the legal field is cyber law. She has done a good amount of work on this topic and I have spent time reading her research and thoughts to better understand what I want to focus on. I particularly enjoy the fact that Dr. Magaldi allows me to freely perform research on particular topics of my interest without posing restrictions on what I am doing. The main drawback we have faced is, of course, time and being able to extensively focus on the research with classes in session; nevertheless, we are planning on spending a good deal of time over the winter break to work on this research.

As always, we welcome any questions or suggestions for our topic. Thank you.

Blog 1: Revenge Pornography Meets Cyber Law

Dr. Magaldi and I are conducting research that will give us a more in-depth look at non-consensual photography – commonly referred to as ‘revenge porn’ – and its place within the legal system. Although we have not finalized the title of our research as we are in the early stages of development, we have two working titles: “Revenge Pornography: How States are Combating Instances where Technology meets Misogyny” and “Revenge Porn: The Name Doesn’t Do Non-Consensual Pornography Justice and the Remedies Don’t Offer the Victims Justice.”

The purpose of this research project is to better understand how the law addresses various factors related to the identification of behaviors related to non-consensual pornography, including anonymity and jurisdiction; how society values the damages that arise from the behaviors; and how different states address the harms to victims by statute and through case law. One of the goals of this project is to explore revenge pornography and its connection to the legal system and society more generally, including to other crimes and civil harms that historically affect women.

My personal goal of this research is to better understand the various crimes that may be committed in the cyber world, particularly relating to revenge pornography, and the law’s extent to the persecution of its perpetrators. While revenge pornography is a particular manifestation of the issues at the intersection of technology and the law, it will inform my understanding of the larger issues of the law as it is impacted by technology. The project gives us the opportunity to understand the legal system more in-depth as it relates to these issues and more generally. In addition, it bridges to my personal interest in the perils of human trafficking and sexual exploitation.

In the introductory stage of our research, Dr. Magaldi has provided me with supplemental case studies and her earlier research on the subject to better understand the issue at hand. While I am personally interested in the topic, I am not deeply familiar with its connection to law and the legal system, which is why I do not have a clear path for exactly how we will approach the project. Amongst our current and planned methods of conducting research are the analysis of case studies, various publications regarding the matter of revenge porn, the extent of laws and statutes across the 50 states and jurisdictions of the U.S. and their analysis, and analyzing personal experiences that victims have had with the matter. We have regularly met since the start of the semester to come up with new ideas as to how I can become more familiar with the subject, and have conducted a bulk of background research in the process.

I am excited to be working with Dr. Magaldi on such a significant issue in our time, especially given the ease of anonimity online and its repercussions, and look forward to continuing working on the proposed issue. We welcome any questions or contributions that you may have.

Blog 3: Final Summer Report

Over the course of this summer, I partook in a research project headed by Professor Judith Pajo and alongside Shen Yang, Zoe Kim, and Emma Wolkenstein. The purpose of the project was to gather information on how people who work in a field that deals with environmental maintenance in an urban setting approach their work, how they came to work to uphold the environment, and what they expect out of their work moving forward. To gain a thorough understanding of both the participants in our research and the areas that they work in, a multi-layered methodology was used.

Methodology: The first thing that we did was individual research. We looked online and to previously known connections and places for organizations or public spaces that dealt in some way with the environment. These places include community gardens, compost recycling plants, and water filtering centers. Once a list of places was made, each person contacted the organization to explain the purpose of the project and our interest in the organization and its employees participating in it if possible. For the organizations not normally opened to visitors, we asked about a site tour, to better understand the environment a participant would be working in. These places would be contacted by email or phone if they were unknown to us previously, and reached out to personally by a researcher who had known them from a previous encounter whenever possible.

Once somebody from the organization expressed interest in participating, a site visit and interview date would be set up. Even if we didn’t hear back from a contacted organization, those that allowed access to the public were visited for fieldwork. At these places, I and the other researchers watched what was happening both in the place itself and its immediate surrounding area if relevant. We would take photos and fieldnotes, and strike up conversations with employees and volunteers at the organization and possibly gain a participant or two out of these conversations, and if so, a later time or date for the interview would be set up. At the places where participants had agreed to interviews the same thing would take place, but would include videos, audio recordings, and photos of participants who gave written consent to such.

Interviews took place at the organization site, with a document explaining the purpose of the research, it’s contents, and requesting various permissions of possible identification of the participant given to them at the start of the interview. If permission was given, the participant would then be photographed, audio-recorded, and named in research results. The interviews varied in length, taking anywhere from 15 to 120 minutes. For the most part interview questions were the same: How do you think about the environment? How were you exposed to it in childhood from family, teachers, and other influences? How does the environment play a part in your work? Have you always worked in the environment sector? What brought you into it? Did you come into this job with prior environmental experience related to your work or did you learn it along the way? Are there any particular concerns you have for the environment in the future, both related and unrelated to your work? Aside from a recording of the interview taking place when allowed, notes were taken by the researcher(s) over the course of the interview. Most interviews were followed up with another round of site participation and notetaking, both in its own right and in comparison to previous site visits.

All information was gathered in several folders in a shared google drive between me and the other researchers. Separate folders were made for photographs, interview transcripts, audio recordings, videos, and field notes. These were updated over the course of the summer whenever new research was gathered. The results and analysis of the research are as follows:

Research:

The research collected is primarily focused on the opinions and experiences of individuals working or volunteering with an environment-supporting organization or group in urban spaces, but also takes into account the settings where they work and the unique way in which their work enriches the environment. Gathering the data into a comprehensive database was the first step in analyzing the research, followed by comparing and contrasting the varied experiences and approaches to environmental work shared by research participants.

The first step in the research was to gather field notes and observations of the settings where research participants work. These places had two main categories of being focused on improving or maintaining the local quality of the land or water, but some others also focused on protecting local wildlife, flora and fauna, and air cleanliness. These minor categories of focus were present in the sites we visited, but in tandem to their overarching focus on environmental protection, preservation, and rehabilitation. The differences between the sites in New York and California seem stark to me. Despite both areas being surrounded by water, more sites in California either focused on water cleanliness and accessibility or included it in their services than the sites I visited and heard about in New York. This might be partially due to how the natural waters in California are more accessible and relied upon by the public, so there are more organizations dedicated to upholding the water’s accessibility. That being said, the sites in New York that included marine cleanliness and conservation in their efforts were also very open and eager to discuss said efforts. Another similarity seen across sites was the tenuous relationship they had with the government. Several sites relied on local government for funding and collaboration on programs offered at the sites, but were also in disagreement with the government’s plans on increasing development in the area, at the behest of the environmental work espoused by the sites. One site was involved in a case against the government at the time of my visit. Most, if not all of the sites put a focus on education, usually for the local public, but some also arranging educational visits for students, camps, and other groups. A large part of these organization’s goals need increasing public interest and support to be met, and so outreach and raising awareness of their goals and how they could be accomplished was a prominent part of their work. Where the sites differ, aside from what their particular goals are, is in their placement. Although all in urban spaces, the diversity of the placement and prominence of the sites surprised me. Some were small and unnoticeable at first glance, in hard to reach areas with unclean surroundings. Others were highly visible and busy, with a loud appearance. A couple had booths at other environmental sites, such as a compost drop-off and textiles drop-off location at a greenmarket, although the majority had one location.

The sites we visited were diverse in function, goals, and scope. Despite the differences between them, many emphasized education and public engagement. Some worked in tandem with government funding or land allocation, a few in legal issues with the government simultaneously. Others were vocal about their approval or disapproval with government policies and plans that would impact their environment. The individuals interviewed came from varied backgrounds, some growing up with an interest in the environment, and others developing it in recent years. A few notably first developed an awareness and appreciation for the environment at sleepaway summer camp as children, whether learning to appreciate wildlife in its natural habitat or realizing the disparity in nature available in the countryside compared to scarcity in urban city spaces. Interest in the environment ranged from a desire for recycling of reusable materials to saving and repopulating native marine animals, from reintroducing natural flora and fauna to urban environments to reducing air pollution and protecting native forests from destruction. There were some who spoke about a particular cause relating tot the environment that they were passionate about while for others it was a range, or a desire to improve the environment as a system rather than focusing on one aspect over others.  Some interviewees spoke about their views on the environment in relation to their jobs, and others had opinions that were independent of or differed from their line of work. All of the participants believed in education and making the environment and civic engagement more accessible to the public. Everyone we spoke to were passionate about their beliefs and clearly held them with conviction.

Overall, a lot was accomplished this summer. We were successful in locating and contacting different organizations relevant to our research, as well as visiting them and observing what goes on inside as well as how they appear from an outsider’s perspective. We were able to set up multiple interviews with volunteers and workers at these sites, who spoke to us at length about both their work and their personal outlook on the environment and what it means to them. Aside from formal interviews, we struck up informal conversations with passersby at some of the sites, giving us additional perspective on why people engage with these sites and the environment. When given consent, interviews were recorded and photographs and videos of the sites were taken, ensuring that the information would not be forgotten, so that we can properly assess it.

I really enjoyed this experience. It was daunting at first, having to strike up conversation with strangers and raise the subject of my research, but it became easier the more that it happened since I came to know what to expect. I really enjoy research, the individual aspect of it as well as the engagement with others that comes along with the job. Overall it went well, and I look forward to continuing it this year. I learned a lot about different approaches to improving and conserving the environment, as well as about local sites that I would be interested in attending myself. This research became something I was actively looking for subconsciously, to the point while on vacation in Boston upon passing by a local tree planting project my first thought was about how this would be a good site to do research for this project. This project has definitely made me more aware of my surroundings, as well as the small and large things I could do to reduce harm to the environment in my daily actions. It has also reiterated the need for organization, how having everything in one or certain spaces makes it much easier to decipher and examine in the long run. I look forward to seeing where this endeavor will take me in the fall and winter.

Blog 3: Final Analysis of Legal Translation in New York City

The research that Professor Danylenko and I have carried out this summer has proven to be very engaging and productive. As a recap, our initial plan was to focus on legal translation within the Brooklyn borough and determine whether enough services were provided to non-English speakers to navigate the legal system. We were able to survey and assess 5 companies in the tristate area specializing in legal translation and interpretation, comparing their prices to the average income of immigrants. This allowed us to see that affording such services is quite difficult since the average immigrant family earns $36,000 annually, when legal documents cost hundreds of dollars simply to translate.

Our other area of research was on non-profit organizations that offer legal translation/interpretation services free of charge. Not only did we find that there are a few organizations of this type, but you must fit the criteria and remain on a waiting list to receive any sort of assistance. Translators are very limited – for the Russian language, the New York Legal Assistance Group only has 2 translators. Although not originally part of our initial objectives, we decided to analyze the quality of the translations produced by both for-profit and non-profit organizations. To achieve this, we assessed the requirements of being a translator at each company/organization and noted that there are very lenient qualifications for both. Translators are not regarded as employees at these companies, but are merely freelancers. Non-profit organizations do not have much of a rigorous requirement for their translators, as long as a volunteer has some knowledge of the language. This is very detrimental to the system since these documents are often going to court and are important in legal proceedings. A poor translation/interpretation can have a very negative outcome in the court of law.

To determine whether clients were happy with the services that they received, we posed a questionnaire to some 100 individuals and received the responses of 32. The languages we focused on are Spanish, Chinese, and Russian since those are the three predominant languages in Brooklyn after English. Most of the clients were unhappy with the services received citing errors in translations of the documents, lengthy wait time, and a suspicion that many were translated through online engines. Overall, the results we have obtained from our multiple surveys are very effective in continuing this research. We have spent these few months performing outside research by gathering data and will now continue into the fall semester by performing the academic portion. Our goal is to continue analyzing our data and bring a proposal to City Hall with our suggestions.
We make a proposal to provide individuals with incentives that will encourage them to pursue an education within the fields of language and translation studies. Of 100 people who were questioned if they were aware of the translation studies field, 78 responded with a negative answer. Most people are not aware that such a field exists, which is the core of where the problem lies. Translation studies is very limited at colleges and with the exception of a few that offer undergraduate degrees in the field, most do not.

The second point lies in the solution to the problem – providing students scholarships and grants towards pursuing legal translation studies. This is done for teachers whose tuition is reimbursed and loans are forgiven if they go on to teach in certain communities. Many of these communities are surrounded with these children and their parents who have limited opportunities to obtaining legal representation or legal services. If we look at the statistics of how many children and their families are non-English speakers, we see a direct correlation. Children cannot receive a good education if their families are in danger of eviction or deportation. The two tie directly together. Offering students scholarships or loan forgiveness if they choose to pursue the field of legal translation serves as an incentive. Such an incentive has been given to aspiring teachers and recently by NYU to medical school students.

As a home to many immigrants and non-English speakers, New York City must take the lead on this. By encouraging students to study the field of legal translation, the city will be able to offer more of its people the opportunity for growth and improvement. Incentives should also be given to non-profit organizations in the form of grants to encourage them to offer such services. There are very few organizations who offer legal interpretation (let alone translation) at the moment. This is just one of our ideas to propose and we are continuing to investigate the matter as more data comes in.

We welcome any suggestions and ideas to further the research. Thank you.

Final Blog Post

Over the course of this summer I worked on a research project called “Can filter feeders restore water quality in Coney Island Creek?: The role of mussels and oysters in nitrogen removal.” The goal of my project was to collect data on the general water quality conditions within the creek. Coney Island Creek is heavily polluted and there is a lack of data available on the extent of this pollution. In addition to that, I sought to use the information I collected to begin to assess the role that oyster cages may play in improving these conditions.

Every week we ventured out into the field and collected water quality samples based on the tidal cycle. We started sampling as the tide came in and then waited to do our second round of sampling as the tide went back out. At each site, we recorded measurements of dissolved oxygen, velocity, pH, and temperature. Many of our sampling sites were inaccessible, so we often used a bucket attached to a rope to collect our samples from bridges. We also used oranges and a stopwatch to measure velocity at our inaccessible sites. At the end of our sampling period, we used a cooler to maintain the nutrient concentrations of our collections and transported them to the Pleasantville campus for analysis.

At this point in time, we are still in the process of analyzing the samples we collected. At each site we collected three samples, resulting in several dozen collected water samples. To determine the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and ammonia, we are using the Seal Analytical AutoAnalyzer. This machine uses reagents to analyze the samples and creates a standard curve, which can then be used to determine our final nutrient concentrations. It also allows us to duplicate and “spike” samples for quality check analysis. Quality check allows us to make sure that the results we receive are accurate.

Overall, conducting this research has been a rewarding and challenging experience. I’ve learned a great deal about water systems and the complexities surrounding maintaining them. I also now know how to use the standard techniques employed for water quality monitoring. Being in a public area also granted me the opportunity to interact with members of the community and hear their thoughts on the pollution in Coney Island Creek. Speaking with these people and hearing how passionate they were about improving the water quality conditions was a great privilege. Many residents expressed that they felt a lack of transparency between researchers and the community because information regarding the pollution in the Creek is inaccessible to them. Their comments showed me how important it is that we as researchers involve and engage communities when doing research in their neighborhoods. In addition to the field techniques I learned, I will carry that valuable message into my future research endeavors.

Final Blog Posting

THE PERCIEVED IMPACT OF SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT FOR CANCER PATIENTS

    When I began my research this summer, I had this idea of how it was going to go. Needless to say, the process somewhat felt like one of those HGTV shows where stuff keeps going wrong. But ultimately, just like in one of those shows we got something beautiful out of it, and I’m so excited and proud to show off our work.

When we first got accepted into the program we made schedules of when we wanted things to be done and how we were going to do it, but we forgot to take into consideration that we would have to go through the internal review board prior to beginning our interviews and truly conducting research. So, we started out by completing a CITI program that talked about ethics and conducting research. We also gathered basic information on cancer, so we could quickly choose our topics and make interview questions to get started with the process. Once we submitted the questions there was about a one month gap.

We ultimately decided to choose the subtopics “Healthy Living: Diet/Exercise”, “Mindfulness/Yoga/Positive Thinking”, “Support Systems”, and “Spirituality”, and divided them between the two of us. I ended up being in charge of healthy living and support systems. I was fortunate enough to have a study abroad experience that focused on oncology, and these two topics were discussed frequently. The course helped show me how to research these topics in literary searches, as well as give me the knowledge of primary cancer treatments. So, when I did my research I looked for articles within the past ten years, and used Pubmed and Google Scholar as data bases to ensure I was getting information from reputable sources. I didn’t realize originally how important the wording of your searches are in getting the specific content you are looking for. For instance when I was looking up information on the impact of exercise on cancer patients, I learned I really had to search “exercise and cancer” or I had to search “exercise and cancer treatments”. After changing my wordings about a billion times I finally came up with enough articles. I then had to go through and figure out which articles really were best for what I was trying to prove.

Once we got the go ahead to carry out our interviews, I was actually in the Netherlands on my study abroad program, so I had to adjust my original plan and use email to interview the cancer survivors I had asked to participate before I had left. That was a challenge because I was hoping to create more of a conversation than a question and answer type of environment. I also had to be very specific in the instructions I gave to them. I made it clear that they could remain anonymous if they chose and sent them consent forms as well. I also told them they only had to answer questions they felt comfortable with and felt related to their individual treatment. The thing I learned about cancer care is that every patient is different. Treatments are very individualized, and people choose different types of treatments whether they be primary or supplemental. In the end I was very thankful because the two survivors I interviewed were very open and honest in their responses and were very passionate on the topic itself.

After I finally had all of my research together, I put together outlines of what I wanted to say and how I wanted to tell their stories along with the research I had done on my own. It was important to me that I portrayed their ideas in the correct way. I then got to have some fun by writing the blog posts and putting together a format that allowed me to get creative in how I displayed the information. Brina and I both agreed that we wanted our blogs to be simple, and informative so people were able to understand what we had found. We are so excited to make our Facebook page go live in September so we can share our information we have learned as long as resources so people are aware of supplemental treatments.

Our research showed just how important supplemental treatments are in cancer care. They don’t necessarily cure cancer, but they help create a better prognosis for cancer patients, and help create a more individualized approach to treatments. Also, cancer treatments like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, etc. are known for having many side effects, and I know specifically in my healthy living blog I talked a lot about how they can help patients manage their side effects like fatigue and nausea. My professors this summer also emphasized the healthier a patient is going into a cancer treatment, usually helps the outcome in the end. The survivors I talked to also mentioned that because of their cancer they decided to continue that healthy lifestyle after their treatments were over and they were cancer free.

I’ve never had cancer, so I can only imagine the way people feel when they’re diagnosed, then going through treatment, and even after treatment, but I did learn the importance of having a good support system. Each individual classifies their support system differently. Maybe that support system is your family, or fellow cancer patients, or even friends or religious groups. Having that community and support help patients come to terms with how they’re feeling and even just express what they’re going through. Kathleen, one of the survivors I interviewed explained that she never went alone to chemo. “When I started to lose my hair my son shaved my head and his in solidarity. We tried to make it as fun as possible. My family (sisters and cousins) helped do laundry and help keep my house in order. Friends from the town and work sent dinner over almost every night. My kids’ friends’ moms helped with dropping them off to activities. It took a village”. She said with all of that help she was able to keep her life in order and fight cancer. This way she wasn’t living in chaos. Sometimes people need a little extra help.

Overall, I am thankful that I was given this experience. I believe it will help me become a better nurse and focus on patients’ wishes and what they want from their treatment. I’ve heard too many stories of how cancer treatments are becoming too generalized and I want to help ensure my patients are deciding how they want their treatments to be carried out. When I asked the two survivors what their advice would be to new cancer patients in terms of supplemental treatments, and Patty responded “Go for it.  Complimentary therapies are just as important as traditional therapies!!!   When used in conjunction with each other one is giving themselves the gift of better odds.” This idea, the gift of better odds, is so powerful.

I think both Brina and I have had an incredible experience through this program and were able to put together a page that can be available to everyone. If we are able to reach just one person and make a difference in their lives, I feel that we will have accomplished absolute success. But I think looking back at how much we’ve done this summer, and how much we’ve learned we are proud of how it all came together. It was definitely challenging at times, but we were able to adjust and get through it together and with the help of Dr. Maxam who we are so thankful to have as our faculty in this program.

 

 

 

Blog Post 3

This research project attempts to estimate the predictive value of SAT/ACT scores and high school achievement for success in a college honors program at a private urban university.  Studies indicate that high school GPA may not be a good predictor of the students’ performance in college.  This is because some students come from specialized schools with a rigorous curriculum, while others perhaps get involved in too many extracurricular activities or take too many AP/IB and other College level courses.  In all these cases, students may come in with a lower GPA and thus would not make a cut to the Honors College.  At the same time, students who come from an “easy” school may have a higher GPA.  This project will attempt to see how High School Average, SAT/ACT scores, the number of AP/IB and other college level courses taken in high school, the grade point average in those courses, and the quality of the high school affect Honors’ students’ performance.  We also explore how scores on different SAT sections (math and verbal) or ACT sections (English, Math, Science) may affect college students’ outcomes.  Our unique data come from the Pforzheimer Honor College at Pace University, NYC on about 300 students who were admitted by the College in 2014 and 2015.  We use regression analysis to estimate the effect of different predictive factors on the College GPA and the probability of graduating with Honors.

After running regressions to see which of our independent variables most strongly correlated with success in Honors, we realized that none of the factors we were considering affected success in Honors. We believe our issue was that we were trying to explain success by individual components. To attempt to solve the problem, we created a composite index with four categories that encompass four different aspects of success: learning, research, leadership, and professional career. Each category will have a value of 0-3. The theoretical maximum is 12. The GPA is added to the index, so the theoretical maximum of the CIS is 16. We are still in the process of analyzing the results using this new methodology of defining our independent variable.

Overall, I have greatly enjoyed my experience thus far working with Professor Shostya. I have gained a comprehensive understanding of what goes into a research project including question and procedure development, literature review, data collection, and the use of Stata to run regressions and analyze data. I am looking forward to continuing this project and bringing it to completion.

 

Blog #3

Unfortunately, there has been delay in the research. Dr. Gosnell had to submit another proposal to Pace University’s Institutional Review Board at because there were changes: we originally thought that the survey would being 25-35 minutes long, but it is now 40-45 minutes long. Also, we had to adjust compensation, instead of it being $1.75, it is now $2.25. We remain hopeful that we will get the approval from the Institutional Review Board quickly so we can submit the work to MTurk.

We remain hopeful that the results of this research will be promising. The focus of this research is to figure out if there is a way to maintain close relationships despite having polarized political views. This research will hopefully inform us on how and why we maintain close-political party relationships and provide suggestions on how we can facilitate those relationships.

When we get the approval from IRB, we plan on using an online participant pool called MTurk. Our results will be coming from a diverse sample of participants from across the United States of American that represents the different political parties and variety of ages. Participants will be asked to reflect if they have had close and/or relationships while having different political views. They will also be asked about themselves as well as their relationship.

FINAL BLOG POST

The summer is coming to a close and my research has answered many questions since I started asking questions about student success and engagement. The topic branched out from there to expand on communication between generations, and smaller parts of what can influence a student’s success in college.

The research methodology I employed was a qualitative case study. I searched for articles through Pace’s library database services, and read through articles until I found one that was relevant enough to write about. I’d repeat this process until I had enough information compiled for the topic, and I’d move on to another topic to research. I would occasionally go back to a topic and edit the write-up, but for the most part I kept moving forward with my research into a new direction every week.

To understand Student Success and Engagement, I attempted to find out the factors that promote a student’s chances for succeeding in college, finding that good attitudes and supportive environments are among the most important aspects of a successful student. Much of this research was performed in the hopes that I would end up promoting my own success, by learning about good students to eventually become better myself. From there Professor Magaldi recommended a new avenue of research, and occasionally I decided something was important enough to research myself.

Communication between generations can cause issues in a classroom, a barrier preventing the students from understanding the teacher and vice versa. The teacher has the responsibility to educate the students, data shows that teachers who also take the responsibility for emotionally caring about the students create an environment that greatly improves student success, more than for teachers who don’t emotionally acknowledge their students.

Depression in college students is increasing in recent years, and the research done with these students shows that depressions is detrimental to many components of success for a student. Additionally the internet has become so enticing for some students that they become addicted and develop problematic internet habits. Internet overuse is associated with neglecting course work or social obligations in favor of coping with stress with memes and social media.

The experience of working with Professor Magaldi this summer has been a wonderful opportunity, and I’ve learned a lot directly and indirectly through this research. Success takes a lot of dedication to reach, and is subjective for each person. The individual needs to recognize what success looks like to them, and teachers need to understand how to talk with their students to create understanding. The results of my research are intuitive, it makes sense that depressed students are less successful, that teachers who put in more effort promote more success, and that motivation determines the level of effort a student puts into their work. Without motivation, it all crumbles.

I’m excited for another opportunity like this one to perform research, and I plan on working with Professor Magaldi to compile all the research and expand upon it to make a paper that can be used by people to promote their own success. The future of this research is in collecting data on what we couldn’t find before, such as for honors societies. Further research can be done on how much success is determined by an individuals natural affinity for school, and how much is effort from the student to be engaged in their environment. Engagement is vital for the student to learn and be interested in what they’re doing, and researching engagement for a topic I’m engaged in was a great educational experience.

End Of Summer Report

In our research, Professor Yarbrough and I have come to understand better units of measures for income inequality. Our initial research used the Gini Coefficient as a measurement, however, we both ultimately agreed that it would not be the best in terms of capturing subtle differences over the years. In this research we used panel data covering all 48 contiguous states during a nine-year period between 2006 and 2015. Based on previous literature, we know to account for differences that can stem from the state’s educational inequality therefore we include the variable eduineq to help capture that effect (ranges from 1 to 0 with 1 being perfectly equal). We also add control variables for State Populations and Total Real Personal Income. State Educational Attainment, state Gini coefficients and yearly state population statistics were acquired from United States Census data. Based on the varying results of our three comparative regressions, we find that heavier state reliance on regressive forms of taxation worsens economic conditions for the less fortunate. In light of this information, we can come to the conclusion that despite the improvement of the United States economy over the past three decades, the growth is not a broadly shared experience. A majority of the gains have accrued to the households at the top of the income distribution, meanwhile middle and lower-income households have stagnated in growth, and on some occasions, even experienced declines. As a nation, we must be more vigilant in ensuring that our nation’s economic growth benefits all segments of our population. Our nation highlights an increasingly prevalent difference between high-income families and the poor and middle-class. To counteract this trend, our policymakers, on both federal and state levels, must consider enacting more progressive taxation framework.

Over the course of this summer, my professor and I have agreed to explore further into different possibilities of income inequality measurements. We are in the process of comparing and getting a general understanding of how other researchers capture and measure income inequality.