Final Blog Post

Over the course of this summer I worked on a research project called “Can filter feeders restore water quality in Coney Island Creek?: The role of mussels and oysters in nitrogen removal.” The goal of my project was to collect data on the general water quality conditions within the creek. Coney Island Creek is heavily polluted and there is a lack of data available on the extent of this pollution. In addition to that, I sought to use the information I collected to begin to assess the role that oyster cages may play in improving these conditions.

Every week we ventured out into the field and collected water quality samples based on the tidal cycle. We started sampling as the tide came in and then waited to do our second round of sampling as the tide went back out. At each site, we recorded measurements of dissolved oxygen, velocity, pH, and temperature. Many of our sampling sites were inaccessible, so we often used a bucket attached to a rope to collect our samples from bridges. We also used oranges and a stopwatch to measure velocity at our inaccessible sites. At the end of our sampling period, we used a cooler to maintain the nutrient concentrations of our collections and transported them to the Pleasantville campus for analysis.

At this point in time, we are still in the process of analyzing the samples we collected. At each site we collected three samples, resulting in several dozen collected water samples. To determine the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and ammonia, we are using the Seal Analytical AutoAnalyzer. This machine uses reagents to analyze the samples and creates a standard curve, which can then be used to determine our final nutrient concentrations. It also allows us to duplicate and “spike” samples for quality check analysis. Quality check allows us to make sure that the results we receive are accurate.

Overall, conducting this research has been a rewarding and challenging experience. I’ve learned a great deal about water systems and the complexities surrounding maintaining them. I also now know how to use the standard techniques employed for water quality monitoring. Being in a public area also granted me the opportunity to interact with members of the community and hear their thoughts on the pollution in Coney Island Creek. Speaking with these people and hearing how passionate they were about improving the water quality conditions was a great privilege. Many residents expressed that they felt a lack of transparency between researchers and the community because information regarding the pollution in the Creek is inaccessible to them. Their comments showed me how important it is that we as researchers involve and engage communities when doing research in their neighborhoods. In addition to the field techniques I learned, I will carry that valuable message into my future research endeavors.

Blog Post 2: Water Quality in Coney Island Creek

Swan at Coney Island Creek Site 8.

As of last week, we have completed our water quality sampling for the summer. For the past two months, we visited Coney Island Creek weekly to record water quality measurements and collect samples. It rained during two of our six sampling days, which enables us to compare wet and dry weather conditions. This comparison will be crucial as we use our results to begin to understand and describe how this system functions. From the measurements of dissolved oxygen and pH we took, we could see patterns emerging which indicated a decrease in water quality conditions when nearby sewage pipes were running. In particular, we observed declines in dissolved oxygen content following rain events. Our next steps will be to analyze the samples we collected and formulate our results. Since we were only able to record wet weather conditions on two days, we will also continue to sample during the Fall semester to add to our data set.

Coney Island Creek Site 5. Discharge from pipes following a rain event.

One of the challenges we experienced with this project was the weather and the complexity of the creek. Our sampling was weather dependent because it required capturing the conditions of the creek during wet and dry days. Closely following the tidal cycle and weather forecasts for the purposes of this project made me feel like a storm chaser, which was exciting. The weather was unpredictable at times, which made it more difficult to collect the samples we needed. There were several days we went into the field expecting the water to be flowing in one direction based on the tidal cycle, only to observe it moving in a different direction. This discrepancy was strange and made us consider the possibility that storm pipes were running in the area even in dry weather.

Coney Island Creek Sites 5 and 6. View of stormwater pipe.

From this project, I have learned the protocols for water quality sampling. Throughout this summer, many community members stopped us in the field to ask questions about our research and voice their own opinions. Not only did I learn more about the mechanics of water quality sampling, but I also gained some insight into how the local community feels about the polluted status of Coney Island Creek. As researchers, we were also able to educate some members of the community about their local waterbody, which was a major success. Overall, this project has continued to solidify my interest in studying water quality conditions in New York City. In the future, I intend to explore the social science aspects of this project and engage with the community more to hear their thoughts on the state of Coney Island Creek.

Blog 1: Can oysters save Coney Island Creek?

Coney Island Creek

This summer, I will be conducting a research project focusing on water quality with Dr. Palta. Our study location is Coney Island Creek, which is a heavily polluted waterbody in Brooklyn, NY. The area surrounding the creek is mostly used for industrial and commercial purposes, which has contributed to its environmental degradation. Additionally, the creek is home to 8 combined sewage outfalls and MS4s (stormwater), which contribute to water pollution. Currently, very little is known about the water quality conditions and sources of pollution at our study location. The Billion Oyster Project has placed an oyster cage in Coney Island Creek with the hopes that they will survive and improve water quality conditions.


Billion Oyster Project Oyster Nursery- Governors Island


In high school, I became interested in oysters and their potential to improve water quality conditions because of the Billion Oyster Project’s work. They have oyster restoration sites across New York City, where citizens can practice stewardship and collect data on oysters and the water quality conditions in their environment. Before I was involved in this, I was unaware that oysters used to be a huge part of New York City’s ecology and economy. It was shocking to find out that New York City was once referred to as the “oyster capital of the world,” because I have always thought of our waters to be polluted. Today, oysters are now considered to be ecologically extinct in our waterways and no longer provide ecosystem services. Learning this is what pushed me to study this topic.

While oysters have historically kept waterways clean, we don’t know if they still have the capacity to do so. Considering how polluted Coney Island Creek is, this is important to explore. Our research focuses on the water quality conditions, sources of water pollution, and the role of oysters within the creek. The purpose of this study is to determine the total amount of nitrogen load to the creek, and how much nitrogen the restored oysters may be removing from the system.

Coney Island Creek Site 1

The title of our study is: Can filter feeders restore water quality in Coney Island Creek?: The role of mussels and oysters in nitrogen removal. To answer our research question, we have selected 8 site locations spanning the creek to sample. Our sites were chosen based on their proximity to combined sewage and MS4 outfalls. At each location, we will be measuring dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, velocity, and collecting water samples once a week. Our samples will be taken during dry and rainy events, and during low and high tide. From this, we will be able to create a nutrient budget for Coney Island Creek. This will allow us to begin to understand the creek’s general conditions and how that fluctuates over time. From this research, I will learn a great deal about the water quality conditions of this waterbody and how sources of pollution impact it. I also expect to determine if oysters are able to influence nutrient concentrations through their filter-feeding capacities. Overall, this work may help inform future restoration efforts, especially ones involving bivalves, in Coney Island Creek and in general.

Coney Island Creek Site 8


How Do Bronx Residents View Their Natural Surroundings? – End of Summer Report

This summer, I worked on a project entitled “How Do Bronx Residents View Their Natural Surroundings?” with Dr. Toomey. My goal was to gain further insight into how Bronx residents view their urban surroundings in terms of nature and wildlife through park surveys and interviews. At first, I helped the Gotham Coyote Project maintain cameras in Van Cortlandt Park. This allowed me to become more familiar with the advances in research the Gotham Coyote Project has made, so that I could relay relevant information to local residents. After deploying cameras, I conducted short surveys of Van Cortlandt Park park goers and interviewed Riverdale/Kingsbridge residents. Through this research, I was able to learn more about the nuances in opinions of wildlife and nature in the area, how educated residents were on their local environment, and spread education through direct community engagement.

At first, I decided to focus on collecting surveys in the park and using “snowball sampling” to find qualifying interviewees. However, it soon became apparent to me that this method wasn’t feasible for a project with a shorter time frame. By speaking with a local community member, I was made aware of the fact that most neighborhoods have private Facebook pages where residents can interact. As a Riverdale resident, I was able to join my community Facebook page and directly engage with community members. Using social media as a means of recruitment was very successful as many residents reached out to me to indicate their interest in being interviewed.

To analyze the responses I received from my interviews, I used qualitative coding. This method was appropriate for my research as my data came in the form of interview transcripts. When coding, I first read through all of my transcripts as a whole. I then went through each transcript one by one and color coded words and phrases with negative and  positive connotations. From that, I was able to look at the transcripts again and made notes of themes. This allowed me to create larger categories from the themes, and see how often they appeared in responses.

Originally we aimed to collect 5-10 interviews. At this point, I have interviewed 6 people in total, which is a huge accomplishment. Each interview consisted of 17 questions and took roughly 30 minutes to complete. After completing the survey, interviewees had the opportunity to ask me any questions they had in regards to coyotes in the Bronx.

Throughout my interview transcripts, the themes that appeared most often in my transcripts were habitat, distance, animalistic, curiosity, and safety. I coded for habitat whenever responses indicated or mentioned resources, human development, the state of the environment, and wildlife protection. I coded for distance whenever responses mentioned keeping coyotes away from humans, avoiding interaction, and leaving coyotes alone. Animalistic was a code I used for responses that discussed what people perceived to be the natural and uncontrollable tendencies of coyotes to hunt and exhibit other predatory behaviors. When responses indicated a lack of knowledge in regards to coyote ecology or interactions, I coded them under the theme of curiosity. Finally, when responses mentioned awareness or feelings of fear or threat in regards to coyotes, I coded them under the theme of safety.

Overall, I had a very positive experience with this program and research. It exposed me to a different side of scientific study that I’m less familiar with. The combination of bad weather, language barriers, and many New Yorkers’ avoidance of people armed with clipboards and questions made it difficult to find park goers and Riverdale/Kingsbridge residents to participate in this study. However, this program gave me a greater understanding of the challenges that can arise when doing research in the social sciences and how one can adapt. My mentor has helped me in recognizing my strengths as a researcher and a person, and using them to my advantage. She has also helped me in learning how to be independent from a research perspective, how to build upon previous research effectively, and how I can use my strengths to guide me down a career path I will enjoy. I have also learned a great deal about research ethics and how to do qualitative coding this summer. This project was the first time that I have ever used qualitative coding and I now have a great appreciation for the usefulness of this research method. Finally, this project and my mentor has made me incredibly interested in the social science field.

Perceptions of Coyotes in Riverdale/Kingsbridge

Preserved coyote at Wave Hill

Since my last blog post, I have made an incredible amount of progress in terms of surveying and interviewing members of the Riverdale/Kingsbridge community. At first, I mainly focused on surveying general park goers of Van Cortlandt Park as I tried to figure out the best way to find residents who would qualify for my interview. My interview consisted of 17 questions, and each one took about 30 minutes to complete. From the responses I received I have been able to gain a better sense of how educated Bronxites are on coyote ecology in the area. From my study, I’ve learned that the amount of knowledge of coyote ecology is very varied. One interesting finding from my data is that while many residents believe that coyotes, wildlife in general, and nature should be treated with respect and cared for, some also believe that coyotes in particular should be removed or don’t belong in New York City. I am very curious about looking into this discrepancy further as I progress with my analysis. Another theme I’ve noticed is that language indicating fear, curiosity, and/or uncertainty appeared frequently in responses. The data I have collected has shown me that there is a very large gap in information about coyotes, despite previous and current efforts from the Parks Department to educate people about this species and other wildlife in the region.

North Riverdale building complex where coyotes have been spotted by residents in previous years.
Polaroid picture of North Riverdale.

As a result of the data I have collected, I am very interested in looking more into the specific steps the Parks Department used previously to educate Riverdale/Kingsbridge residents about coyotes. This project has definitely confirmed my thoughts of the importance and efficacy of using direct community engagement as a means of educating people. Several interviewees expressed that they have very little information about the ecology of coyotes, and that therefore their perceptions are based on opinions rather than on ecological awareness and scientific fact. A few interviewees also expressed that they were open to changing their opinions if they were given the opportunity to learn more about the ecology of coyotes in the Bronx.

North Riverdale

This project has strengthened my interest in wildlife education and has encouraged me to possibly work with the Parks Department, and specifically their Wildlife Unit to educate more people on coyote ecology. I am also now very interested in how and if the responses of Riverdale/Kingsbridge residents would change if they were provided with a more accessible way of learning about coyotes in the area.

View of woods in South Riverdale.

Can Coyotes Be New Yorkers Too?

This summer I will be working with Dr. Toomey on a project focused on coyote perceptions in Riverdale and Kingsbridge, New York. Riverdale/Kingsbridge is a small section of the Northwestern Bronx, which borders Yonkers. Having grown up in Riverdale, I am particularly interested in learning more about my own community and how residents view local wildlife and nature. I was first made aware of coyotes in the Bronx in 2014, as I was involved in Wave Hill’s Woodland Ecology Research Mentorship Program. At the time, I barely knew what a coyote looked like, let alone that I lived amongst them! In the years following, New York City’s Wildlife Unit made efforts to inform New Yorkers about local wildlife through a series of bus stop advertisements. However, if I hadn’t been involved with the Gotham Coyote Project, I would have had very little knowledge of how to deal with urban coyotes. Although I have never seen or heard coyotes in my neighborhood, I know that several residents have seen them. The idea that some residents have seen coyotes in the area, while others may still be unaware of their existence is incredibly interesting and has made me very passionate about discovering what knowledge base and opinions members of my community have in regards to coyotes.

The title of our project is currently How Do Bronx Residents View Their Natural Surroundings? The purpose of our project is to gain further insight into how Bronx residents view their urban surroundings in terms of nature and wildlife. We hope to expand on previous surveying of Bronx Van Cortlandt Park goers to more in-depth interviews of local residents. From these more intensive interviews, we hope to get to the root of and learn more about the nuances of Bronxites’ opinions of their local environment, coyotes, and wildlife in general. Through our research, we also aim to have a better understanding of how well educated Bronxites are on coyotes.

By interviewing and surveying residents, our goal is to continue to spread awareness of local wildlife ecology in a positive manner, in the hopes that increased education and awareness will help to quell fears of coyotes and prevent negative human-wildlife conflicts/interactions. To achieve this, I devised a list of 17 interview questions which were designed to potentially reveal deep-seated feelings and opinions of nature, wildlife, coyotes, and New York City’s urban ecology. For this project, we will be interviewing long-term New York City residents who reside in the Bronx. It is important that we interview native community members because our research is very specific to the area. Interviewing residents or park-goers who aren’t native to the area may alter our results as their opinions may be influenced by the environments they were raised in. The Riverdale/Kingsbridge section of the Bronx, where our research is located, is very tight-knit, so we are using chain sampling or “snowball sampling” to recruit interviewees. This method of sampling will potentially help us in ensuring that our interviewees are native Bronxites and are willing to undergo the interview process. To analyze our data, we plan on using qualitative coding, which will draw out key themes that emerge from the interviews.