UGR Blog Post 2

Fertilization is a complex molecular interaction that may require multiprotein complexes on both gametes for sperm-egg fusion to occur. My project aims to identify how potential multiprotein protein complexes are functioning and what their impact is on fertility and sperm-egg fusion. We have previously identified a sperm membrane protein interactome in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) that provided evidence that sperm membrane proteins interact extensively. My lab team has weekly meetings where we discuss our projects for the following week. I have been maintaining my worms and making sure they are healthy for future experiments. One of the difficulties I have faced is that one of my plates got infected, and this required me to follow better sterilization procedures.

We are analyzing the spe-36 gene, which was originally identified as a sterile strain. Further analysis revealed that spe-36 mutants are unable to fertilize eggs normally, but the cause is unknown. To better understand why spe-36 mutants are sterile, we are analyzing the mutants at different developmental stages. We are investigating three different strains N2 (wild-type), spe-36(as1), and spe-36(as1)asEx96. The spe-36(as1) mutant is the C. elegans without the gene of interest. And the spe-36(as1)asEx96 is the C. elegans with the gene of interest replaced and tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). We have conducted a brood size analysis at 16°C to assess fertility rate. We discovered that C.elegans with spe-36 mutants are unable to fertilize. When the gene is knocked in, the fertilization reaches close to the wild-type but not entirely. We are interested in seeing what will happen at 20°C and 25°C. We expect to see a slower fertilization rate at these temperatures since they are not the preferred temperature.

We have also identified two C. elegans strains with mutations in genes known to be necessary for fertilization to analyze the effect that missense mutations in multiple sperm membrane proteins have on sperm-egg fusion. Since I will be examining more than one mutation, we ordered different strains of C. elegans from the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center.The VC40852 strain has missense mutations in fer-1 and spe-10 and the VC20575 has missense mutations in fer-1 and spe-9. We are measuring the effect of these mutations on brood size and sperm-egg fusion. The analysis of both strains will provide insight into the genetic interactions between fer-1, spe-9, and spe-10 and allow us to generate a model of how these genes could be functioning together to mediate fertilization.

Blog Post 1: Using the Model Organism, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), to Evaluate the Function of Homologous Genes Hypothesized to Impact Male Infertility

Male infertility can result from low sperm production, abnormal sperm function, or defects in sperm delivery. The mammalian fertilization process begins with the fusion of two germ cells. More specifically, the spermatozoa enter the female reproductive tract and are required to migrate to the oviduct. The oviduct is where the spermatozoa meet the ovulated eggs. However, this process often is not successful because of genetic mutations in the sperm. I am interested in determining how different genes mutated in sperm impact the rate of infertility.

More specifically, I am interested in analyzing how double mutations influence infertility. As a model to study sperm development, I am using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). C. elegans is a well-established genetic system that can be used to determine how my genes of interests control spermiogenesis and how their misregulation could lead to infertility. Using Celegans as a model system, we are using a genome sequenced multi-mutation library, from the Million Mutation Project, to identify genes associated with defects in sperm. We will than analyze the rate of fertility of single mutants versus double mutants. We are going to use those orthologs and perform structure-function analysis using single mutants to understand better which domains of the gene the mutation impacts. In the end, this analysis will help us better understand infertility and will help us identify how specific genes interact with one another.

Final Report

This summer, Dr. Fink and I conducted a research assignment which involved how college journalists used Freedom of Information (FOI) laws when they are trying to request information pertaining to a story. Professor Fink and I wanted to see the interactions between college journalists and their institutions when it comes to the students trying to receive information.

College journalists and FOI laws has been a topic of interest to Dr.  Fink for some time now,  Dr. Fink also knows that I will be the editor-in-chief of The Pace Chronicle this fall, so she thought that I would be perfect to help her with this. project. We began by finding college journalists who filed FOI requests in the 2016-2017 school year, once we had ten we thought that would be a large enough sample size to move forward. We both decided that before we interview the ten subjects we need to come up with suitable questions that would help us obtain the information that we were looking for. Questions that Dr. Fink asked the ten subjects was stuff like what was the background information for that story, why they filed a FOI request, did they face any problems when they filed a request, and  did filing FOI requests affect their reporting. The information that we gathered was definitely a non-empirical approach because our methods was through analyzing the interviews that Dr. Fink did. Once all the interviews where transcribed myself and Dr. Fink went through each interview and choose the information that was suitable for our final presentation.

To summarize this project would be quite difficult because every subject had different experiences when dealing with FOI laws. Some subjects had an easy time obtaining information from their schools, and therefore it was much easier for them to report. However, some students had  a very difficult time  getting information from their university, and therefore is was much harder for them to report on stories. But it was very interesting to see how the universities reacted to requests from students. One scenario that came up frequently was Title IX requests and from what I gathered most universities were very hesitant to give over such information because when you think of Title IX and colleges it is such a heated issue it today’s society so to see how universities reacted to those requests was very interesting and telling.

Overall, I view this experience as a positive one because when I take over as editor-in-chief of the school newspaper the information that I have learned through this research project could become very valuable. Since I became a college journalist I have only filed one FOI request about a Pace student who was due in court last November so I think that it is safe to say that I need more experience. Through these interviews I learned what other college journalists had to go through in order to obtain the necessary information they needed to write a story, so I hope to apply that to this year. I also learned  through the difficulties that these journalists face and I will use that as helpful experience as well.

2017-2018 #2: Other Englishes

Progress is being made on our project! I am constantly trying to dig up new media sources to go along with my last post that shows the portrayal of standard English as the golden standard for our project, branching off from the My Fair Lady discussion. It is interesting to process all these depictions of standard English as being the ‘proper’ English in media, especially since it isn’t something that we specifically pick up on during a movie viewing. At this point, I’m getting close to touching upon each facet of our project (the social media portion is coming next), but I’d like to dive a little deeper into each previous section to really flesh out my arguments. However, I think I’ve done pretty well at laying a foundation for the remainder of the research, which is really exciting! The rise in prominence of other Englishes besides standard English is really intriguing to look into.

This next portion of the project focuses on ‘Other Englishes’, which I’ve begun to look into. Contrary to popular belief, the presence of other Englishes has already begun embedding itself in our everyday lives. This shift away from monolinguistic language has come with the need to make the language sound more and more like the ‘informal’ language used in everyday life. For this particular post and because it hits so close to home for me, I will focus on the Geoffrey K. Pullum’s “African American Vernacular English Is Not Standard English With Mistakes”. The recognition of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is not a new phenomenon; in 1996, one California school-board meeting in Oakland ended with the decision to recognize AAVE as a language, deemed it as classroom appropriate, and trained teachers to “look at it objectively and appreciate its merits” (Pullum 39). However, the decision was met with harsh criticism and ridicule, mostly due to the perception that AAVE is a degenerate form of standard English plagued with mistakes in grammar and pronunciation—the “street slang of an ignorant urban underclass” (Pullum 40). However, Pullum rejects this claim, noting that there is a clear distinction between slang and AAVE. He argues that “no subculture’s slang could constitute a language” because slang consists of words and phrases that feeds off a host language, possessing no grammar of its own (Pullum 40). AAVE, however, does not possess the same qualities as slang. AAVE, in fact, is a dialect of English—”a classificatory claim [that is the same as saying] a white-tailed deer is a kind of deer”; ‘dialect’ is not a term that is meant to portray one—AAVE, in this case—as a lesser form of another (Pullum 44). Pullum also identifies AAVE as having “a degree of regularity and stability attributable to a set of rules or grammar of rules and punctuation, as with any language” (45). This argument demands that AAVE gets the respect and recognization it deserves.

This only touches the surface of Pullum’s argument. I’d like to dig deeper into the argument to discover how this specific argument can be applied to a variety of Englishes outside of AAVE.


2017-2018 Blog Post #1: Intro/Deconstructing ‘My Fair Lady’

The 2017-2018 school year marks the continuation of “Sharing Englishes and Social Media”, a journey embarked on by Dr. Florescu and I. The first portion of our project has explored personal experiences, scholarly texts, and some previous research surrounding the way the monolinguistic ‘English’ has shaped our lives. This upcoming part of our project will be centered on how the concept of monolinguistic English appears in social media. “Social media” — for the sake of our project — branches outside of what we have come to know as present day social media, such as Twitter, Facebook, etc. We will be exploring those platforms as well, but “social media” for this project will also encapsulate the arts, such as movies, literature, and so on.  Dr. Florescu and I also plan to take a closer look into how our present society has found ways to branch away from monolinguistic English, creating other Englishes are, indeed, valid forms of Englishes.

As an introduction to the half of our research dedicated to media, I’d like to begin by deconstructing this clip of My Fair Lady. For those unfamiliar with the film, the Google synopsis of the film is as follows:

“In this beloved musical, pompous phonetics professor Henry Higgins (Rex Harrison) is so sure of his abilities that he takes it upon himself to transform a Cockney working-class girl into someone who can pass for a cultured member of high society. His subject turns out to be the lovely Eliza Doolittle (Audrey Hepburn), who agrees to speech lessons to improve her job prospects.” 

The synopsis alone is very telling: language becomes a classist factor, a tool that can be used to differentiate who is of ‘high society’ and who is not. Not only does Eliza Doolittle’s working-class society set her apart from high society, but linguistically, her Cockney accent — common among working-class Londoners — becomes a dead giveaway to her social standing.

The clip begins with Higgins asking Doolittle to recite the phrase: “The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain.” He is clearly exasperated by her pronunciation, calling it an offense to the Lord (My Fair Lady 0:00-0:37). Although ‘proper issue’ is more often than not looked upon as a minority issue, it is important to note that both Higgins and Doolittle are white; the only thing that separates them is that Doolittle is a female and more importantly, she is working-class.

The film takes on a rather classist approach. The premise of the movie is centered around Doolittle not being considered a proper lady due to the way she performs her English, as it is associated with being working-class. The fact of the matter is that Doolittle does speak English, but clearly, this is not enough for Doolittle. He needs her to speak proper English or fulfill what I have previously referred to as the gold standard of English. In his eyes, her Cockney accent does not satiate the requirements. Rather than being looked at as a full-fledged human, Doolittle is Othered because her Cockney accent is a signifier of her marginalized working-class status. Professor Higgins asserts his superiority over her; he is white, male, and upperclass, and so, he becomes the standard. In order for her to be perceived as acceptable to him and his society, she must assimilate and shape herself in his likeness. This process becomes impossible if she cannot change the way she performs her English and thus, she becomes his project — a broken thing that needs fixing. An entire song is dedicated to his plight, titled “Poor Professor Higgins”, as he endures the burden of civilizing the social savage.

Through the performance of her English, Doolittle becomes the butt of the joke. We are not meant to take her seriously in this clip because even Higgins does not take her seriously. Higgins views Doolittle, in her current state, as a blight on society, while we look at her as comedic relief because of her inability to fulfill the gold standard. However, perceiving those who speak dialects affiliated with the working-class as purely comedic is problematic, since we are taking joy/humor in someone’s social status because we see them as being lesser.

End-of-Summer Report

Christina N. Stewart
20 August 2017
End-of-Summer Report

As one of the vilest crimes committed against humanity, human trafficking is a dilemma that is extremely common across the globe—even in the United States of America. Simply put, human trafficking is the unjustified trade and exploitation of individuals for sex or for labor through force, fraud or coercion. It is modern-day slavery. Through my research project, “Using Crime-Mapping to Understand and Identify Hot Spots for Human Trafficking in the U.S.,” I wanted to bring awareness to the issue of human trafficking. In addition to bringing awareness, I wanted to dispel the myth that it’s an overseas problem by mapping out hotspots in New York City where this inhumane crime is most prevalent.

My main objectives were to identify the types of trafficking, reasons behind trafficking, the interconnectedness of trafficking, statistics, the prevalence of trafficking in the U.S., resources for individuals who are trafficked, and possible prevention measures. I conducted internet research via media articles and videos, and viewed police reports, presentence reports, and case databases to help aide in the project. In addition, I conducted informational interviews with individuals well-versed in human trafficking including a world-renowned forensic traumatologist, a former counsel at the New York County Lawyers’ Association, and a Special Agent of the FBI.

Many people believe human trafficking just involves sexual exploitation, but it actually goes way beyond that. Aside from sex trafficking, there is labor trafficking (forced labor), and child soldiering. Sex trafficking occurs when a person is forced to engage in commercial sex acts against his or her will. It occurs in a range of venues including fake massage businesses, via online ads or escort services, in residential brothels, on the street, or at hotels and motels. The victims are often lured in by false promises of a job, such as modeling. In terms of labor trafficking, victims are forced to work long hours—often in deplorable conditions—for little to no pay. Employers exert “physical or psychological control – including physical abuse, debt bondage, confiscation of passports or money” which makes the victim believe they have no other choice but to continue working for their employer (Polaris, 2017). Common outlets for labor trafficking include domestic servants, farm workers, factory workers, and those in health and beauty services. Out of all the types of trafficking, profits are highest in forced sexual exploitation, which can be explained by the demand for such services. Sex sells.

One factor that tends to be common to human trafficking involves the victim’s vulnerability to exploitation. Traffickers usually prey on vulnerable situations and turn these situations into opportunities for financial gain. People who are unemployed, homeless, or have limited social services are more likely to resort to illicit activities and informal means to survive, and traffickers exploit these disadvantages. They prey on people who lack opportunity, coerce them, and then profit from them. Those in poverty will often risk everything to escape their hardships—many times being lured by traffickers to move to another country. Once the victim arrives to the new location (a new state, country, etc.) they become slaves to their traffickers. Aside from poverty and lack of opportunity being the reasons behind trafficking, “wherever the rule of law is weak, where corruption is most ingrained, where minorities are abused, and where populations can’t count on the protection of government—we find not just vulnerability to trafficking, but zones of impunity where traffickers can prey on their victims” (Department of State, 2016). Weakness is the best trait a person can find in someone they want to control.

Human trafficking is a lucrative enterprise and the interconnectedness of trafficking is extremely extensive. It can be said that human trafficking occurs in virtually every country in the world and crosses borders when victims move between source, transit, and destination countries. There are currently an estimated 45.8 million people enslaved in the world today— a greater number than at any other point in history (The Global Slavery Index, 2016). Due to globalization, human trafficking has spread rapidly. Most businesses operate on an international scale, and human trafficking is no exception. In many cases, both industrialized and developing countries partner to engage in this modern slavery. Essentially, the lesser developed countries of the world serve as factories for the developed countries. Many corporations in developed countries demand cheap labor which “results in the trafficking and exploitation of desperate workers who, in turn, are subjected to a lifetime of slave-like conditions” (Brewer, n.d.). People are duped by offers of economic opportunities abroad. Women, men, and even children from developing countries “have been smuggled or lured to wealthy industrialized countries where they are exploited for high profits” (Clark, 2003). The sale of human beings as commodities on the world market doesn’t seem to be slowing down.

Although the United States is an incredibly developed country, there is a high prevalence of human trafficking here. According to the National Human Trafficking Hotline, the five states with the most reported cases of trafficking in 2016 were California, Texas, Florida, Ohio, and New York. Over 17,000 trafficking victims are brought into the United States every year from foreign countries, while thousands more are trafficked within the United States (U.S. Department of State). Prostitution of children is incredibly common and it is suggested that there are “at least 100,000 children exploited through prostitution every year in the United States” (Executive Summary United States of America, 2016). The most commonly reported venue for sex trafficking situations involving U.S. citizens is hotels and motels.

While researching human trafficking’s prevalence in America, I discovered that New York is a breeding ground for this exploitation. New York City has a very large immigrant population and is in close proximity to major ports of entry—contributing to its prevalence of trafficking. The borough of Queens has been of particular concern out of all the areas of the city. Specifically, the Roosevelt Avenue corridor in the Jackson Heights and Corona area has been known to law enforcement as an epicenter of sex trafficking in NYC, and a mecca for trafficking along the entire East Coast. Roosevelt Avenue is lined with several brothels, bars, and clubs, says New York State Senator Jose Peralta, and “once one gets shut down, another one opens up” (Kern-Jedrychowska, 2014). Many pimps in Queens target immigrant women who live nearby. They have operated like this for decades and continue to make enormous profits from their practices.

Going into my research, I knew I wanted to focus my efforts on NYC for the crime mapping portion of the project. I spent quite a bit of time looking through case documents, incident reports, presentence investigation reports, etc. to find incidents of human trafficking in NYC. Due to the insidious nature of the crime, I’ve had a difficult time pinpointing exact hotspots where trafficking is most prevalent. Specific locations where trafficking takes place usually aren’t published in an effort to protect the privacy of victims. I’ve found a couple of specific locations based off of certain cases, but not as many as I would’ve liked. I’ve been getting frustrated not being able to find what I’m looking for, but I knew this was a problem that I might run into. As of now, I’m still looking for more incidents so that I can complete and populate the map.

I’m very happy with my experience working on this project. I sharpened my research and writing skills, and also got to work with professionals well-versed in human trafficking. I learned a vast amount of eye-opening information and have been able to share this information with others—raising awareness about this heinous crime which many Americans are blind to. Human trafficking erodes human dignity and is an incredible ethical challenge facing the world today. I wanted to dispel the myth that it’s an overseas problem and I feel I did so with this project.

Works Cited

Brewer, D. Globalization and Human Trafficking (p. 47). TOPICAL RESEARCH DIGEST : HUMAN RIGHTS AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING. Retrieved from

Clark, M. (2003, April 23). Human Trafficking Casts Shadow on Globalization. Retrieved August 19, 2017, from

Department of State. (2016). Trafficking in Persons Report (United States of America, Department of State). Washington, D.C.: Office of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs. Retrieved August 17, 2017, from

Executive Summary United States of America. (2016) (p. 1). Retrieved from

Kern-Jedrychowska, E. (2014, July 21). Roosevelt Avenue Is ‘Epicenter’ of NYC Sex Trafficking, Officials Say. Retrieved August 07, 2017, from

Polaris. (2017, February 17). Labor Trafficking. Retrieved August 17, 2017, from

Brainbrow Imaging of the Zebrafish Lateral Line: Retrospective

As the summer winds down, I have been reflecting on the project Dr. Steiner and I began working on in June. Dr. Steiner and I have been utilizing multi-transgenic zebrafish to deeply explore the regeneratory process of zebrafish sensory hair cells. The current body of zebrafish research suggests supporting mantle cells divide to produce hair cells during regeneration of neuromast sensory organs along the lateral line, although evidence of such is lacking. Together, we created a plan to manipulate three transgenic lines to image the regeneration of these neuromast cells, with the end-goal of better understanding this regeneratory process and the factors that control it.

With these research goals in mind, I’ve been learning about the complexities of conducting biological research with living specimens. Many times during the semester, my colleagues and I have sacrificed time to come in on weekends to feed the fish; there have been several weeks the fish didn’t cooperate with breeding, and we had to quickly work on a new plan for the week. Truthfully, though, working with live zebrafish brings an element of physicality and life to my research. It’s a pleasure starting my day seeing our entire population of zebrafish greet me with frantic swimming.

Also challenging, but extremely rewarding, is developing the Zebrabow process I’ve been using to visualize cells of zebrafish. At its best, this method makes the cells of zebrafish fluoresce a beautiful mosaic of colors, allowing a researcher to better understand the cell divisions that potentially lead to new hair cells. No single procedure will work for every lab; Dr. Steiner has greatly helped me in creating a Zebrabow process that works for our fish in particular. At the start of the summer, we had very little mosaic fluorescence amongst the cells. This provided me several opportunities to review the process we had used, and modify it for better performance in the future. Such modifications make this research project feel like it is truly our own; over the next few semesters, I hope to refine this procedure to obtain consistent and repeatable results.

This summer project has not only taught me about valuable lab techniques, such as confocal & fluorescent microscopy and taking care of living specimens; working with Dr. Steiner this summer made me increasingly comfortable with the research process and environment, which I hope to be a part of for years to come. Being able to pave my own way through a new set of procedures is fantastic experience for my future endeavors. Most of all, I’m excited to continue my research with Dr. Steiner over the upcoming year, building upon everything I’ve learned over the past months.

Included in this blog post is an image of one of the Zebrabow treatments I’ve done, in order for readers to better understand the process. This image was taken as numerous ‘slices’ of images from the confocal microscope, then compressed into a single image. On the bottom right is the neuromast, the organ containing hair cells that Dr. Steiner & I study. One can see numerous flourescent cells, as well as some macrophages (depicted by amorphous green-flourescent projections).

Blog 2

Over the course of the past couple of weeks, collaboration has continued with a number of different senior citizens. In each of the sessions students sit down with at least one senior (sometimes in a small group) and guide them through different aspects of technology. Based on the research so far, four “critical areas” have been established and will serve as the foundation for the technology program that is being developed. These findings are based upon personal surveys and interactions, previous research, and social needs. The four critical areas are: Mobile Banking, Tele-Health Services, Digital Communication, and Basic Computer Literacy. “Mobile Banking” includes viewing online bank accounts, paying bills online, and using ATMs. “Tele-Health Services” encompasses online patient registration portals, at-home medical tests, and virtual doctor visits. “Digital Communication” is a combination of traditional social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter) and other online communication tools (Skype, email). Finally, “Basic Computer Literacy” is providing the seniors with the basic skills to interact with their computers on a daily basis. This includes teaching them how to interact with computer hardware, basic keyboard tricks, and how to work their operating system. The research thus far has suggested that if older adults are provided with the skills listed above, then they will be better equipped to interact with current and future technologies. In establishing a better understanding of these topics, older adults will be able to properly interact with today’s society, other adults, and younger generations, thus lessening their feelings of social isolation. It is interesting to note that three of the four critical areas that have been identified were ones that were hypothesized at the beginning of the project. In speaking with the older adults and their families, and aids, these were areas that they hoped to learn more about. Additionally, these are areas that many younger individuals utilize on a daily basis.


The research has raised a number of questions, and provided subsequent challenges in developing a proper technology program at Carter Burden. First and foremost, how can the success of the technology program be accurately measured in a meaningful way? It is hard to quantify the success rate because so much of the work that is being done is subjective to the individual. The understanding of the findings is limited because a proper survey (or tool) that is able to adequately measure the success rate has not yet been established. Furthermore, another challenge/question that has come up is how to teach and interact with older adults with physical/mental handicaps. Many of the challenges that are associated with teaching older adults such as memory loss, and decreased mobility, are magnified with those with a mental/physical disability (dementia, etc.). Research is still being done in understanding how the program will overcome these challenges in helping the adults learn.


One of the main successes and lessons of the research is that the needs and abilities of this community are now better understood, which provides a solid foundation as the research continues. There is an entire community of individuals who were not privy to growing up with today’s technology, but who nonetheless, are wanting to better understand and connect with these devices. Not only are older adults able to learn about technology with the proper teacher and resources, but they are eager to jump into the digital age! It has been very interesting to see how these adults approach new technology and ideas with a sense of ambition and determination. There are so many aspects of the digital age that many take for granted, but it has been wonderful to see these adults grow as they learn more about the technology that surrounds them.


This research and project have greatly impacted me and my future studies in this field. I now have a better understanding of an underrepresented community within our society. It has been a pleasure to meet and interact with so many diverse and welcoming individuals. Furthermore, I have firsthand knowledge of what it takes to teach older adults, and how although it can be a timely process, it is equally if not, more fulfilling and enjoyable.


Second post for my summer research project

Recently I have been reviewing the interactions between Dr. Fink and former college journalists who were members of their student newspapers. I have been listening to the recorded interviews done by Dr. Fink and then I have been highlighting key components that was said by the former college journalists so it could be used in our findings.

My biggest question that I have from my research is that nine out of the ten interview subjects were at private schools, so I was curious to know that if public colleges ran into the same issues when it came to FOI. I wondered if it would be easier to request information at a public school because it is  government funded.

The biggest challenge I had in this project was finding people that met our requirements. Our requirements were that they had to have held a editor position for their college newspaper in the 2016-2017 academic year, and they have to have filled a FOI request. So finding people that fit that criteria was a bit difficult.

I learned how valuable it is to file FOI requests. Doing that can be a very valuable tool to journalists because it gives you access to information pertaining to your school or government. This upcoming semester when I am editor- in-chief of the Pace Chronicle  I will use FOI laws to my advantage.

Blog #2

We have come to the final tweaks of the project and I believe we did an amazing job. It is something that will be useful to so many different teachers and students for years to come. Throughout the project, I have learned so many different things that I can carry with me through life. The process was difficult at times with sometimes very little information to go off of, but the more I learned the better I felt about the outcome of the project.

Since our project was not a data based project we did not have any results to experiments or any studies to have findings for. We did our research based on what these four helpers experienced back in the 1940s and how their actions helped stretch the Frank’s lives for just a few years longer. With this project, we had our main subjects to find information on, but the deeper we searched we found different people that were involved that hardly anyone knew about. It was great to be able to not only bring awareness to the amazing people who helped the Frank’s and the others in the Secret Annex but to also shine a light on others who survived and rebelled against the Nazi regime.

With this project, I have learned what bravery can do to help save lives. The bravery to stand up for what you know is right and to not let fear deter you. This project has helped me in numerous academic ways such as with research, but the more important lesson is one I can carry with me for the rest of my life. These four helpers risked their lives to help those innocent families and others and stood up for what they knew was right. They knew the risks of what they were doing, but they did not back down. Even when they were caught they did not let fear overtake them. With what is happening now in this country and around the world this lesson is one that is necessary for everyone to know. This study guide is not only a way for students to learn about what these helpers did, but to help them take the courage the helpers used and use it in their day-to-day lives.